In the first part of this four-part series on reparations, we explored some of the biblical foundations for why reparations might be an important part of bringing hope and healing to the racial issues of our time. In the second part we raised the questions of rightness as well as who should receive reparations for the injustices of the past and why.
Part three explored questions surrounding the practical application and fulfillment of any program of reparations. In this fourth and final post, the question of whether or not giving reparations is actually helpful will be examined.
Is giving reparations helpful?
Are reparations truly helpful for rectifying injustices and facilitating genuine restorative change? Does it actually help rid society of injustice? Does it create new injustices? Do the costs incurred offset the benefits rendered? And how does the idea of “helpful” get determined in the first place and adequately assessed in the aftermath?
In short, is it genuinely helpful for society as a whole, especially for those receiving the reparations, or does it merely perpetuate dehumanizing dependency, creating another generation and class of state wards? Are reparations truly empowering or are they little more than peace offerings to ease the uneasy consciences of those in positions of power and privilege?
Given this, I think at least two critical additional question arise. First, why do we want to give reparations? The question of motivation matters because if we claim to be acting from moral obligation and a genuine concern for others, when in reality we are only trying to assuage a guilty conscience and/or create another voting block of financial and emotional dependents, our dangerous and devious duplicity should be exposed for what it is.
Second, and more practically, how, exactly, do we give reparations? For example, how much is appropriate and what form (or forms) should reparations take? Vouchers? Training institutes? Tuition reductions? Tax breaks? Advancement incentives? Affirmative action? Quotas? Goods and services? Cold, hard cash? All of the above? Some of the above? None of the above?
Most advocates agree that whatever form reparations take, they should include some way to empower the recipients as well as provide a fair and workable system of accountability. People are not ennobled if they simply receive something without any expectations to take what they are given and use it to rise up, grow, develop, and give back to others. When we give people something without really expecting anything of them in return, we encourage dependency and ultimately belittle them as creative and productive persons who are made in God’s image and meant to contribute constructively to society.
Many current discussions about reparations revolve around questions of payments and affordability. In short, most people are asking: How much? Who gets it? How will it be distributed? How are we going to pay for it? Those are important questions, but they do not hit at the heart of the issue in terms of lifting descendants of oppression and racism out of the cycles of dependency and poverty that continue to plague them and their progeny. Reparations without long-lasting social changes remain part of the problem rather than a road to resolution.
In many ways, these are problems of the heart, attitude, and mindset. This is why these issues will never be solved by materially political, educational, and economic solutions alone. These God-ordained social and political institutions can certainly help (or, unfortunately, also hinder) the process, but the problems are deeply spiritual in nature and require wholesale reorientations of entire communities, from top to bottom, as well as everywhere in between.
Only God through the gospel of Jesus Christ can bring about those kinds of radical and enduring transformations. But I suspect it will require a radical reordering and fundamental change in the values and practices of the Church as well as each and every Christian to bring about such change. It may sound cynical, but I honestly wonder if we as the Church are really willing. We may not want to openly admit it, but perhaps we prefer it the way it is because it keeps us relatively comfortable, safe, and unscathed. We do not have to face the messiness and inconvenience inherent in being directly involved in the generational sins (and their consequences) of others. Neither do we have to come face to face with or confront the insidious sins of our own greed, indifference, self-reliance, and self-satisfaction.
To sum up and conclude, contrary to the claims of some, we are not directly guilty of past wrongs, even those committed by our immediate ancestors. But simply affirming we are not guilty of past evils in this way does not mean we have nothing to grieve over or confess to God and others on their behalf. Neither does it mean we are innocent (even through ignorance) of personally benefitting from such systems at the cost of the well-being of others. Through mere inaction and indifference alone we may have helped perpetuate injustice in our society. Consequently, we are certainly not absolved of a biblical responsibility to try and rectify all contemporary wrongs and work toward a more just society in our time.
As such, it seems like some form of reparations (even if we do not call them that) are an appropriate means to this end. Ultimately, we must recognize wrongs, past and present, for what they are—wrongs—and seek to set them right as much as we are able, even at the cost of our own comfort and safety. Anything less is an abdication of our Christian calling and a perpetuation of sin.
For far too long, the Church has looked to the government to solve social problems we are better suited, situated, and solicited by God, through the power of His holy Spirit, to solve. As Dennis Hollinger reminds us in Choosing the Good, “To make justice the domain of government alone is to negate personal responsibility and to expect too much of this necessary but fallen institution.” Our calling and strength come from God, and we must not shrink from the obligation and opportunity to show Christ’s love and concern for the poor and oppressed in our time. As Proverbs 14:9 powerfully reminds us, “Fools mock at making amends for sin, but goodwill is found among the upright.”